U.S. FORCES COMPLICIT IN QUEEN'S OVERTHROW
Thurston Twigg-Smith, in a Nov. 3 letter, stated that the overthrow was not conducted under the auspices of the United States. Perhaps it was not ordered by the United States, but it was certainly conducted with the complicity of the U.S. Navy and U.S. Minister John L. Stevens.
In "Shoal of Time," Gavan Daws states, "Secretary of State Gresham told [President] Cleveland that Minister Stevens, an accredited representative of the United States, had helped to overthrow the Hawaiian monarchy. Gresham ... suggested that in the name of justice the monarchy ought to be restored. ... There had been no genuine revolution, wrote Gresham. The queen had been overawed by Minister Stevens and the troops from the [USS] Boston. 'Her submission was thus coerced. The affair was discreditable to all who engaged in it. It would lower our national standard to endorse a selfish and dishonorable scheme of a lot of adventurers.' "
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